A Piece of Crutch

Later this month, Heritage Auctions will be auctioning off a unique relic: a cross section piece from the crutch of John Wilkes Booth.

This piece of crutch is one among several lots in this auction that come from the family of noted Civil War photographer, Alexander Gardner. Gardner was responsible for photographing mugshots of the arrested conspirators and, later, documenting the execution of four of them. Accompanying this crutch piece is a handwritten note, likely written by Gardner’s daughter, Eliza, which states the history of the crutch piece.

“A piece of the crutch made from a broom handle for J. Wilkes Booth. Sawed up and given to the persons who were present at the Post-Mortem of Booth’s body on board the Monitor “Montauk”

My father Alexander Gardner and my brother Lawrence Gardner were both on board the Montior and saw Booths body taken away in small boat”

We know that Alexander Gardner and “an assistant” were brought on board the USS Montauk after John Wilkes Booth’s body had been brought back up to Washington. The long held story was that Gardner, assisted by another photographer named Timothy O’Sullivan, photographed the autopsy of John Wilkes Booth. According to the story, a single print of the autopsy photo was made, given to Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, and then lost to history. The allure of discovering this long missing Booth autopsy photograph (akin to the discovery of only known image of a visible Lincoln lying in his coffin) has been a goal of many researchers over the years. However, in 2013, impeccable research from John Elliott and Barry Cauchon for their “Inside the Walls” project on the imprisonment of the Lincoln conspirators helped explain why all efforts up to that point to locate the Booth autopsy photo had failed: it likely never existed. While all the evidence is nicely laid out in the duo’s third “A Peek Inside the Walls” supplement titled, “The Mystery of John Wilkes Booth’s Autopsy Photo“, the big discovery by John was an article that was published in 1891 from Lawrence Gardner. In the article, Lawrence Gardner decries the erroneous claims that John Wilkes Booth had not been killed. He then related his attendance as his father’s assistant on board the Montauk after Booth’s body had been placed upon it.

“The object of my father’s visit to the monitor was photography and the body in question was to be the subject. Did we take a picture? No! After everything had been prepared Gen. Eckert concluded that inasmuch as there was so little likeness in the remains to the photograph in existence of Booth perhaps it would be best not to make the picture and the plan was abandoned for that reason.”

Lawrence Gardner relates the same facts as practically everyone who viewed the deceased John Wilkes Booth’s remains – that his body underwent so much trauma and decay during his escape, death, and transport to Washington, that it looked very much unlike the living actor. This idea is often seized upon by conspiracy theorists as evidence of a patsy doppelganger who was killed in Booth’s place but Gardner, like the others who mentioned the poor condition of Booth’s body, is adamant that the body was properly identified. Asked by the reporter is it was actually Booth’s body, Gardner responded, “Of course it was. There could be no question about it,” and then proceeded to recount the different ways the remains were identified. With the decision being made not to photograph the decaying corpse of Booth, Lawrence and his father made three images of conspirator David Herold, who had been captured alongside Booth, before departing.

Included in the lot with the piece of Booth’s crutch is a Harper’s Weekly drawing of the autopsy scene. Affixed onto a page, a notation, likely from Eliza Gardner, identifies her father, Alexander Gardner, among the men present. It is joined by a short affidavit that (in my mind) gives further credence to Lawrence Gardner’s claims in his newspaper article.

“This is a copy of a pen & ink sketch made by my father Alexander Gardner and sent to Harper’s Weekly.

The Govt would not allow a photograph of this to get out, so the pen and ink sketch was made.”

Admittedly, Eliza Gardner’s phrasing that the government would not allow an autopsy photo, “to get out” is a bit ambiguous and open to interpretation. My own interpretation, however, reads this as a validation of Lawrence Gardner’s claim that no photograph was allowed to be taken at all. Instead, Alexander Gardner sketched the scene and inserted himself into it. This would also explain why the label for the drawing in Harper’s Weekly lacks the “from a photograph” tag that accompanies all the other engravings made from corresponding photographs.

I believe this auction lot supports the case against an autopsy photo being taken, and feel that there is more evidence on that side. And, yet, I can’t help but look at the Booth autopsy photograph like Santa Claus. Logically and factually I can admit that it most likely doesn’t exist, but that isn’t going to stop me from hoping that it might turn up someday.

Leaving the mythical autopsy photograph behind, let’s return to the crutch piece. Circular in nature, this cross section seems to support Eliza Gardner’s claim that it was once part of a “broom handle” or something like it. And yet, from Dr. Mudd’s statement to investigators, it appears that John Wilkes Booth’s crutches were even less sophisticated than that. In his April 21st statement to detectives in Bryantown, Dr. Mudd stated:

“The young man [Herold] asked me if I could fix up clumsily some crutches for his friend to hobble along with and I went down to the old Englishman [John Best] I had there who had a saw and auger, and he and I made a rude pair of crutches out of a piece of plank and sent them to him.”

Now John Best and Dr. Mudd may have been talented carpenters, but it would seem impossible that the two men could have transformed a rectangular plank of wood into two round crutches with circular grain patterns. The Gardner piece of crutch up for auction shows a tree’s circular growth rings and was clearly made from a tree branch or sapling. This is inconsistent with having been made from a wood plank.

Faced with this contradiction, one could easily make the assumption that the crutch piece up for auction was a fake, thus casting doubt on everything for sale from the Gardner family including this signed pass to the trial of the conspirators and  a lock of Lincoln’s hair. However, there is a very reasonable explanation as to why this piece of crutch does not match Dr. Mudd’s description: John Wilkes Booth had two pairs of crutches.

John Wilkes Booth’s first pair of crutches, and the ones that everyone thinks of, are the crude ones made for him at Dr. Mudd’s farm. While some sources place their creation solely on the part of John Best, the Mudds’ English handyman, Dr. Mudd, as demonstrated above, claimed he assisted in making them. These initial crutches were rough to say the least, and yet Booth managed with them during most of his escape. He and Herold managed to carry them on horseback from the Mudd farm to Rich Hill and thence to the Pine Thicket. When Thomas Jones put the two fugitives across the Potomac, the crutches came with them in their rowboat. In Virginia, Booth had the crutches when he evicted William Lucas from his cabin after being rebuffed by Dr. Stuart. And Booth still had these crutches when he first appeared at the Garrett farm on the afternoon of April 24, 1865.

Jack Garrett, the eldest son of Richard Henry Garrett, had been a Confederate soldier and had been wounded in the thigh at the Battle of Drewry’s Bluff in May of 1864. He had been sent home to the family farm to recuperate and during that time he acquired a good set of crutches. The crutches remained at the Garrett farm when Jack reported back for duty and were still there when he was discharged from service and returned home for good.  When John Wilkes Booth (known only as James W. Boyd to the Garretts) was invited to stay with the unsuspecting Garrett family on April 24, they noticed his poorly made and worn crutches. “He had a very rude pair of crutches,” Kate Garrett recalled years later, “but my brother had a good pair which he had used when wounded during the war, and he gave them to Booth.”

Booth was likely extremely glad to get an actual set of crutches and not have to suffer from Dr. Mudd’s makeshift ones any longer. The Garrett children were also happy that their guest made the upgrade as Richard Baynham Garrett, then a boy of ten, remembered:

“…The [crutches] he brought with him were so rough that my brother gave him a pair which he had used while a wounded Confederate soldier, and it was on these he was leaning when shot in the burning barn. The writer then a boy, took the old crutches and sawed them off and used them in play with the other children.”

As noted by Richard Baynham Garrett, John Wilkes Booth did not get to use his new crutches for very long. About 36 hours after receiving them, Booth was shot in the Garretts’ burning tobacco barn and dragged to the porch of their farmhouse where he died. From the existence of the Gardner relic, it appears that when the soldiers went into the barn to drag out Booth and attempt to extinguish the flames, they also took the time to pull out some of Booth’s possessions. We know this to be likely as the carbine Booth was holding when he was shot was retrieved from the barn. According to witnesses, Booth had been using the crutches given to him by the Garretts right up to the point when he was about to come out the barn shooting. It seems possible that the soldiers of the 16th NY Cavalry retrieved at least one of the crutches from the barn and brought it back with them to Washington. The crutch (or crutches) was then sawed into pieces and given as souvenirs to those assembled at John Wilkes Booth’s identification and autopsy. This could explain why the piece offered for sale by Heritage Auctions doesn’t match Dr. Mudd’s description of how it was made. If genuine, the piece offered for sale must be from the nicer crutches given to Booth at the Garrett farm.

Appropriately, it’s important to relate that this is not the only piece of John Wilkes Booth’s crutch that exists. At least one other crutch piece is still in private hands today.

Maude Motley speaking with Booth buff John C. Brennan in Bowling Green, Virginia. A young Michael Kauffman (author of American Brutus) is on the right wearing plaid.

Many who study the Lincoln assassination are familiar with the name of Ms. Maude Motley. In the early days of the John Wilkes Booth escape route bus tour, rather than concluding at the Garrett farm and travelling no further south, the bus would go all the way down to Bowling Green, Virginia before heading back. While Booth never made it to Bowling Green, that is the location of where Willie Jett spent the nights of April 24th and 25th, before he was rudely awakened at gunpoint by the Union cavalry and forced to give up Booth’s location. David Herold spent the night of April 24th south of Bowling Green at a private home before rejoining Booth on the 25th. In the early days of the tour, Ms. Motley, a Caroline County native, would meet the bus tour at their stop in Bowling Green.

In Bowling Green, Ms. Motley would tell the tour participants some of the local lore regarding the end of Booth’s life. For a time Ms. Motley’s mother boarded with Lucinda Holloway, Mrs. Garrett’s sister who was acting as a live in teacher when Booth was killed at her farm. Lucinda Holloway’s version of Booth’s death had been passed down to Ms. Motley through her mother and she enjoyed telling it. But more than anything else, however, Ms. Motley regularly met the bus in Bowling Green in order to show off her unique relic: a piece of John Wilkes Booth’s crutch.

Ms. Motley’s story regarding how she got the piece of crutch is really best told in her own words. Luckily we have a recording of her speaking about the death of Booth and her crutch piece from a talk she gave in 1979. Below is an excerpt from that recording which covers how she acquired the crutch piece.

As Ms. Motley related it, one of the charred crutches from the barn was chopped up and shared among the Garretts’ neighbors after the Union troops left on April 26th. One of the recipients of a piece of crutch was the father of Ms. Motley’s neighbor and it was that neighbor who gifted the piece to her. On one side of the crutch piece, which Ms. Motley had set with a metal tag, some charring can be seen, ostensibly from the fire that consumed the Garrett barn.

Ms. Motley’s provenance is pretty good with only one slight problem with the timeline of her story. The elderly neighbor who gave the piece to Ms. Motley was Ms. Reeta Gray. Her father, the one who was said to have received the piece at the Garretts’, was William Edward Gray. William Gray was about the same age as Jack Garrett and was also a Confederate soldier. Unlike Jack, however, William Gray had been captured near the end of the war when the Union took Richmond. Gray was being held as a prisoner of war in Ashland, Virginia on the morning of Booth’s death. He could not have, in Ms. Motley’s words, “rushed over” to the Garrett farm on account of the barn being on fire. William Gray signed his oath of allegiance and was released from custody the next day April 27th and was allowed to return home to Caroline County. Now despite this small discrepancy, it is still very possible that William Gray acquired a piece of crutch some time after his return, passing it down to his daughter who gave it to Ms. Motley.

Though impossible to prove or know for certain, I’d like to think that the two known pieces of crutch, Ms. Motley’s and the Gardner one, come from the two different sets of crutches Booth used. The Gardner piece looks like it came from a legitimate crutch as opposed to a piece of plank, which, assumedly, would make it part of the set given to Booth by the Garretts. Ms. Motley’s piece which looks a little more plank like (though the small size makes it impossible to truly tell) could have come from the set made by Dr. Mudd. “But wait,” you might be saying, “if Ms. Motley’s piece of crutch was from the set made by Dr. Mudd and then traded for a better pair, why would it show evidence of burning?” Well, the answer to that is simple: Booth’s original pair of crutches got burned (at least a little bit).

As we have established, after trading Dr. Mudd’s crutches for a better pair, the Garrett children took the homemade crutches and altered them for play. Ten year old Richard Baynham Garrett cut them to size and likely chased his younger brother and sisters around the farm with them. After the events of April 26th, however, the family feared anything associated with their visitors. According to a later account by Richard Baynham Garrett, “The morning after the killing, not knowing what might happen, he took them [the crutches] and burned them in the open fireplace of the kitchen.”

But here’s the thing, like many other claims of priceless relics being destroyed, Richard Baynham Garrett didn’t go through with burning the entirety of Booth’s crutches. In fact, as a 25 year-old seminary student in 1880, Richard B. Garrett wrote a letter to then Judge Advocate General William McKee Dunn offering him some of the relics still in the family’s possession. In the letter he mentions still having a piece of Booth’s crutch.

Richard Baynham Garrett

“I have in my possession some very interesting relics of Jno. Wilkes Booth. It was at my father’s house in Va. that he was killed and I have preserved the relics. Among them are the mattress upon which he died, a piece of the crutch which he used, and a lock of his hair, cut off after his death…”

The Garretts were suffering financially at the time o this letter and Richard B. Garrett, needing money to continue seminary, was likely hoping the government would pay him for the relics. They declined and so the items stayed in the family.

It seems a distinct possibility that, if Richard B. Garrett retained at least one piece of Booth’s original crutches, that he may have saved and gave away other original pieces. Perhaps, rather than neighbors chopping of pieces of the “burned in the barn crutch” on the day of Booth’s death as Ms. Motely claimed, the Garretts, instead, gave away some salvaged pieces of Booth’s original pair of crutches from young Richard Baynham Garrett’s attempt to destroy the evidence. We will never really know for sure. Call it another, Santa Claus if you like, but I’d like to think the two known crutch pieces came from the two different sets of crutches, making both extremely unique.

Like Reeta Gray before her, Ms. Motley never married or had children of her own. When she died in 1989, Ms. Motley left her piece of crutch to her nephew. It may have changed hands a few times after that, but I don’t know that for sure. Today, the Motley piece of crutch is in private hands and is owned by a noted John Wilkes Booth authority.

Proxy bidding (early online bidding) for the Gardner crutch piece from Hertiage Auctions is already open with the actual auction scheduled for August 25th and 26th. For those of you interested in getting me a nice “Back to School” gift, bidding on the Gardner crutch piece starts at a very reasonable $2,500 ($3,125 including the buyer’s premium).

Heritage Auctions
The Mystery of John Wilkes Booth’s Autopsy Photo by John E. Elliott and Barry M. Cauchon
The Assassin’s Doctor: The Life and Letters of Samuel A. Mudd by Robert K. Summers
Garrett, R. (1907, December 29) The Escape and Suicide of John Wilkes Booth. Macon Telegraph Sunday, p 4.
Burr, F. (1881, December 11) John Wilkes Booth, The Scene of the Assassin’s Death Visited. Interesting Memories of the Garrett Family. A Full Narrative of the Tragic Events. Boston Sunday Herald.
The Art Loux Archive
Rich Smyth

Categories: History | Tags: , , , , , | 21 Comments

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21 thoughts on “A Piece of Crutch

  1. Richard Sloan

    Anotgher great essay, Dave! SO well written and organized.  Sorry I can’t afford to buy you the crutch piece.  I’d love having it myself, and ask my friends to all “chip” in to buy it — for ME!

    • I’m sure it’s out of both our price ranges, Richard. As of this comment bidding is already at $3,200 ($4,000 with the buyer’s premium) and the real auction doesn’t even start for another 20 days!

  2. wow-what an amazing story that I never heard from. Fantastic!

  3. The Boothiebarn postings never fail to impress. Great work.

  4. Laurie Verge

    After first seeing the auction catalogue and the unusual “coin” of wood, I have a question about how they were cut in the days before handheld circular saws (invented in the 1920s to harvest sugar cane. Can anyone tell if the cut marks are consistent with an old handsaw? Sawmills had circular saws by the mid-19th century, but I can’t imagine the crutch would have been cut that way — unless the Navy Yard had something…?

    • I can’t speak to the technology of the day, Laurie, but the piece for sale looks like it could easily have been cut with a handsaw, in my opinion.

  5. This is a fabulous essay! Always amazing to see “new” bits of Civil War history come to light. Thanks for sharing this interesting story so clearly laid out. Quite a compelling argument for the validity of the object in question. Well don!

  6. Rich Smyth

    Another great story! tying together the pieces!

  7. Chris Shelton

    Great story. I wish that I had a few $ thousand in disposable income. I have a few artifacts from the Civil War, but nothing like this.

    • Like Lincoln, pretty much anything with a close association with John Wilkes Booth always sells for a lot of dough. One can always dream though.

  8. irvingtonhunter

    Dave…we spoke a little about the great Lincoln collector Osborn H. Oldroyd while on the walk through Springfield last year. On pages 5 & 6 of Oldroyd’s 18-paged 1896 hand written inventory of his collection he lists a “piece of the crutch used to support his broken leg” and a “lock of Booth’s hair which was clipped from his head while dying on the Garrett porch.” Interesting that these items were among those offered for sale to the Government by Richard Garrett. Likely the source of Oldroyd’s examples. In his 1901 book “The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Flight, Pursuit, Capture, and Punishment of the Conspirators”, Oldroyd details his meeting at the Garrett Farm of both Willie and Jack Garrett (Richard’s sons) in May of 1901 I’m sure he had the crutch relic & lock of hair on display in the Petersen House on Tenth Street (better known as The House Where Lincoln Died). So, considering the well known fact that Captain Oldroyd sold his collection to the Government in 1926, it can be assumed that the owner of the relics is now likely the US Government.And since neither are on display at Ford’s Theatre (where Oldroyd’s collection ended up and is on display now…at least partially) then I suppose they are hiding somewhere in a DC warehouse. BTW…FANTASTIC ESSAY!

    • Thanks so much for commenting. I remember our nice talk about Oldroyd in Springfield. Fascinating that he, too, had a piece of crutch and lock of Booth’s hair. I can’t say I’ve even heard that before. If those two pieces were included in the sale to the government you would think that we would have heard about them by now. That seems like a pretty big artifact that couldn’t have been kept secret for this long. I wonder if it is in storage in Landover with the other overflow Ford’s Theatre pieces or if it found a different home over the years.

      Thanks for the intriguing info.

      • irvingtonhunter

        I am traveling out to that very facility in September to research the Oldroyd items. I’ll keep an eye out. Meantime, here is a letter from my own collection that also mentions the 2 pieces.

        Letter written to Osborne Oldroyd in 1926 from pioneering female lawyer Ellen Spencer Mussey asking the Colonel if she knows anyone who would be interested in purchasing a lock of Abraham Lincoln’s hair from her client, the daughter of famed Civil War photographer Alexander Gardner, who is fallen on hard times. Lawyer Mussey adds that her client has some interesting photographs to sell as well.

        Letterhead reads: “Mrs. Ellen Spencer Mussey Lawyer, 1315 K Street 1507 (crossed out with 1507 M St. written beside it) ”

        Letter reads: “Mch. 21, 1926 My dear Colonel Oldroyd: I have a friend who is in limited circumstances who has a very small lock of President Lincoln’s hair – It occurs to me that you must know persons interested in Lincoln relics who might like to purchase this – It was given to Ms. Gardner’s father Alexander Gardner photographer to the Army of the Potomac by the undertaker who prepared Lincoln’s body for burial – She also has some interesting photographs. With best wishes to yourself. + Mrs. Oldroyd – Sincerely Yours, Ellen S. Mussey”

        Ellen Spencer Mussey biography from Wikipedia:

        Ellen Spencer Mussey was born on May 13, 1850 in Geneva, Ohio, United States. Mussey was a lawyer, educator, and pioneer in the field of women’s rights to legal education. She was the daughter of Platt Rogers Spencer, a reformer and promoter of the Spencerian Method, the widely used form of handwriting. Between the age of 12 and the time of her father’s death, when she was age 14, she was an assistant at his penmanship school. Thereafter she took up residence with relatives and attended Rice’s Young Ladies’ Seminary in Poughkeepsie, New York, Lake Erie College in Painesville, Ohio, and Rockford College in Rockford, Illinois. In 1871 she married Reuben D. Mussey, a former Union Army colonel, who was nominated but not confirmed to the grade of brevet brigadier general; he was also a successful lawyer. Having been denied admission at the law schools of National University and Columbian College (now George Washington University), Ellen Mussey tutored herself in the field of law and underwent legal training in her husband’s law office and began to practice law. Reuben Mussey died May 29, 1892, which might have ended Ellen Mussey’s law practice carried out under her husband’s name. She obtained special consideration and was allowed to qualify for the bar by oral examination, which she passed in March, 1893. In 1896, Ellen Spencer Mussey was admitted to practice before the Supreme Court of the United States. She was approached in 1895 by Delia Sheldon Jackson, an aspiring attorney, to apprentice her as a student of law. Realizing both the scope of the task and the significance of the opportunity, Mussey sought out the assistance of a colleague and friend, Emma Gillett. The two opened the first session of the Woman’s Law Class on February 1, 1896. The class had an enrollment of three: Jackson and two other women, Nanette Paul and Helen Malcolm. Within a few years, the program had expanded and several prominent Washington, DC attorneys were brought in for assistance. Although Mussey and Gillett had not initially aspired to establish an independent law school, when Columbian College refused their request to taken on the women they had educated for their final year of education—-on grounds that “women did not have the mentality for law” — they decided to establish a co-educational law school specifically open to women. Thus, in April 1898, the Washington College of Law (now merged with American University) was incorporated in Washington, DC as the first law school in the world founded by women. With Emma Gillett, Mussey founded the Women’s Bar Association of the District of Columbia on May 19, 1917, and was elected its first President. The WBA was one of the first organizations for women lawyers in United States. In 1919, Mussey also helped to found the National Association of Women Lawyers. Mussey died on April 21, 1936, in Washington, D.C.

  9. Dave, Thanks very much for this excellent story. On my first Escape Route tour in 1981, I had the pleasure of meeting Ms. Motley and holding the crutch piece. On my second tour, I had the added pleasure of sitting with John Brennan. John and I had been corresponding (before email), and we met for the first time that day. He was a great guy. So the picture and video brought back wonderful memories. We even made it down to the crossing site on the Potomac. And my third tour for ten of us from the Richmond CWRT was led by Mike Kauffman, who I had speak at the round table in 2015! Then I met you last year, I think, at Rich Hill. All to my great pleasure. Please keep up your outstanding assassination work.

    • Bill,

      I never had the pleasure of knowing John Brennan but I have copies of many of his correspondences. It still amazes me how much he discovered through good old fashioned letter writing to different people, libraries, cemeteries, and museums. I’m honored to be listed alongside great researchers like John Brennan and Mike Kauffman. Thanks for commenting.

  10. Laurie Verge

    I just re-read the crutch description on the Heritage Auction site. Unless I am reading it wrong, it appears to state that the crutch was cut into souvenir pieces before Booth’s body returned to D.C.:

    “John Wilkes Booth: Relic of His Wooden Crutch. Thin 1.25″ wooden cross-section which we believe was a souvenir relic handed out after the death of the assassin, prior to his body being transported to Washington, D.C.”

    Would that place the cutting of the wood being done at the Garrett farm? On the ship heading back to the capital?

    • Laurie,

      The auction description is at odds with what the affidavit with the crutch piece actual says. You and I both know that the auction houses don’t always do the best research or write ups on their items. Clearly the person in charge of this description hastily read the affidavit and got confused. A few years ago I had to send a correction to Heritage when they were auctioning off a piece of a Booth letter that they said was to Edwin when it was actually to June. Mistakes happen, but the affidavit makes the chronology clear.

  11. Laurie Verge

    I certainly agree with your statement regarding the reliability of auction employees who put together item descriptions. After sixty years in this Lincoln assassination business, I have learned to question everything and take nothing for granted.

    I would also question as to how/why the Garrett crutches (if supplied by the Confederacy) came to be made out of a broom handle. Were medical needs so dire by that time that the suppliers were resorting to using whatever they could find? Or, were the Gardners just guessing that it looked like a broom handle? Was there ever any description given by the Garretts as to the crutches? Could they possibly have been handcrafted at the farm after their son’s return?

    Everyone who has seen the auction catalog here is amazed that the soldiers or the family would run into a barn, that was burning so furiously that it went into a flash-over to retrieve Booth’s crutch. Frankly, I questioned the other sliver of purported crutch for the same reason. However, it never left the area and could have been found in the ashes later. And, of course, we’ll never know 100%. I really wish that some official on the Montauk had made note also of the coin tokens being taken from the real crutch and passed out to those at the post-mortem.
    Sorry to sound like a devil’s advocate, but that’s part of my job and part of my training under James O. Hall.

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